Tag: tax sale

Tax Deed Services Offered by Gomez & Golomb (Including Costs)

We offer two services related to tax deeds: (1) barring the right of redemption and (2) quiet title.

(1) Barring right to redeem. In Georgia, you are entitled to bar the right to redeem any time after one year has passed from the tax sale. Barment notices need to be sent to the owner of the property at the time of the tax sale and to any other party that holds an interest in the property. To identify who needs to get notice, we need to do a title examination. Below are our fees. 

Attorney’s fees are a flat fee of $1,000 plus an additional $600 for expenses. Expenses include title search, publication, and sheriff’s service. We don’t know for sure how much expenses are going to be, but the average is around $600. Sometimes expenses are a little more than $600, sometimes a little less. If less than $600, we’ll refund you the difference; if more than $600, we’ll bill you for the difference.

 The only exception to the $1,000 flat fee for attorney’s fees quoted above is if the owner of the property at the time of the tax sale was deceased; if so, then there is quite a bit more work involved and we’d need to discuss the particulars of your situation.

(2) Quiet Title Against All the World. This is done after the barment is complete in order to obtain marketable title. A quiet title involves filing a lawsuit in the Superior Court of the county where the property is located. On these, we charge attorney’s fees on an hourly basis. Our hourly fee is $300 per hour and we ask for a $1,500 retainer. This covers five hours of attorney time. Normally, the attorney’s fees are about between $1,500 and $2,500, but because it is a lawsuit, we can’t quote an exact amount. In a quiet title, the court will appoint a special master: a special master is a local attorney who reviews the case and gives a recommendation to the court regarding title. The special master will cost an additional $1,500-2,500 (this amount is approximate). Court costs are an additional $500 (filing fee is approximately $250 and service on each defendant is $50).

(3) Adverse Possession: If you have adversely possessed the property for more than four years, you don’t have to do the first step (barment). Adverse possession means you have openly and continuously possessed the property (i.e, you or a tenant were actually in the property) and no one who owned an interest in the property objected.

Another Georgia Excess Tax Sale Funds Case

Republic Title Co. v. Freeport Title & Guar., Inc., A19A0274 (May. 29, 2019) concerns entitlement to excess funds remaining following a tax sale pursuant to OCGA § 48-3-3. We’ve discussed this in previous blogs. There isn’t much new here but the case does reinforce some tax deed principles of interest. In this case, the property owner at the time of the tax sale sought to collect excess tax sale proceeds following the tax sale. Also following the tax sale, a security deed holder on the property similarly sought the excess tax funds.

The owner filed a lawsuit seeking the excess tax funds, and, in the same lawsuit, sought to quiet the security deed holder’s lien as a cloud on title. The argument was the loan had matured for more than seven years and therefore wasn’t enforceable at the time of the tax sale. In Georgia, under O.C.G.A. § 44-14-80, title to real property conveyed to secure a debt or debts revert to the grantor the expiration of seven years from the maturity of the debt or debts or the maturity of the last installment thereof as stated or fixed in the record of the conveyance (this is the general rule).

Following the recommendation issued by a special master appointed in the case, the trial court ruled in favor of the owner; awarding the owner the excess tax funds and quieting title against the security deed holder. The Georgia Court of Appeals agreed. The Georgia Court of Appeals rejected the security deed holder’s argument that the special master didn’t have authority to issue a ruling on excess funds. And the security deed holder’s argument that the property owner lacked standing to bring a quiet title was likewise disregarded. Although the quiet title was filed by the owner after the tax sale, it was filed within the time period in which the owner had a right to redeem the property. Thus, the owner’s right to redeem was enough to give the owner standing to quiet title against the security deed holder.

If you have any questions regarding tax deeds, please call us at 404-382-9994.

Does a Foreclosure Sale Determine Fair Market Value in Georgia?

The answer is a resounding yes according to an interesting case that came out recently. SeeDekalb County Board Of Tax Assessors v. Astor Atl, LLC, A19A0516 (April 1, 2019). In that case, the Georgia Court of Appeals rejected DeKalb County’s argument that it could assess property taxes in an amount higher than the price paid for the same property at a foreclosure sale.

Dekalb County argued that a foreclosure sale does not qualify under as an arm’s length, bona fide sale, and that it had appraised the property in conformity with its rules using the sales comparison approach.

In deciding the case, the Georgia Court of Appeals referenced O.C.G.A. § 48-5-2(3), which provides a limitation on the maximum allowable fair market value. Under that statute, “the transaction amount of the most recent arm’s length, bona fide sale in any year shall be the maximum allowable fair market value for the next taxable year.”

The decision concluded by holding that foreclosure sales can be arm’s length, bona fide sales. Moreover, the fact that the sale may not bring in the true market value of the property does not require a different rule; the fact that the sale results in a financial loss is not relevant.

The court noted that foreclosure sales are distinct from tax sales. While foreclosures are considered arm’s length, bona fide sales, tax sales are considered “forced sales” because owner retains a right of redemption, so the tax deed purchaser does not obtain proper title until the redemption period has run.

While this isn’t super helpful in the current market with surging property values, it would definitely help investors should the real estate market turn south down the road. Something to keep in mind.

Please call us at 404-382-9994 for real estate related questions.

Georgia tax deeds: What if the delinquent taxpayer is deceased?

When a property owner dies, often taxes go unpaid, and the property gets transferred at a tax sale. This typically happens when a property owner dies without close family or when the decedent’s family thinks it’s too much hassle taking over the property (maybe the property is in bad shape or there is little equity).

As every good tax deed purchaser knows, 366 days after the tax sale, notices to terminate the right to redeem can be sent out. But who do you send these to when the main person entitled to redeem, the homeowner, is dead.

O.C.G.A § 48-4-45 answers this question and instructs that “heirs of any deceased owner of any land entitled to notice pursuant to this Code section shall be served by the sheriff or notified as provided in this article.” Ok. So if the former owner is deceased, you are required to serve his or her heirs. Seems simple enough, but how do you determine who the heirs are?

In our office, we start by getting the death certificate of the deceased individual. This tells us where the decencent was living and (normally) provides information regarding at least one family member. We then contact family members to determine the heirs. As you can imagine, family members aren’t thrilled to talk to an attorney’s office who’s trying to “take property away from” a loved one recently passed. However, after explaining the situation, we usually get the family members to help us.

We also check the probate courts to see if the dead person has an estate and had a will. If so, we get the probate paperwork. If the person died intestate (without a will), then we follow Georgia statutory intestate rules to determine the heirs, and try to get “affidavits of descent” from family members. These affidavits help establish who the decedent was married to, the identity of the children, and so forth.

This can be a lot of work. In one case, we had an elderly decedent who died without a will, wasn’t married, and had had nine children. Several of those children had passed, meaning several of the grandchildren were heirs. We ended up having to locate and serve approximately 19 heirs spread all over the country.

If you need to send out notices of foreclosure of right to redeem in Georgia, and are facing a similar situation, we’ll be happy to discuss your situation and answer any questions. Please call us at 404-382-9994.

Can a tax commissioner apply excess funds to post-tax sale property taxes?

Iglesia Del Dios Vivo Columna Y Apoyo De La Verdad La Luz Del Mundo, Inc. v. Downing, 321 Ga. App. 778 (2013) addressed this issue, and the answer, quite simply, is NO. (Bonus points for being able to say the plaintiff’s name in that case three times fast.)

The guiding statute is O.C.G.A. § 48-4-5, which provides that any excess funds existing “after paying taxes, costs, and all expenses of a sale made by the tax commissioner” shall be distributed “to the owner or owners as their interests appear in the order of priority in which their interests exist.”

So, while a tax commissioner is authorized to apply excess funds to satisfy outstanding property taxes owed by the delinquent taxpayer that accrued before the tax sale, it can’t do so after the tax sale. This reasoning for this is that the tax deed purchaser, not the delinquent taxpayer, is liable for post-tax sale property taxes.

What about a situation in which post-tax sale property taxes accrue before the tax deed purchaser has barred the right of redemption? In this situation, the delinquent taxpayer still has possession and the tax deed purchaser doesn’t have full title. Is the delinquent taxpayer jointly liable with the tax deed purchaser? According to the Downing case, the answer is no.  Only the tax deed purchaser is liable for post-tax sale property taxes; this is regardless of whether the right to redeem has been barred.